Volume 82, Issue 10 p. 1469-1477
Translational Periodontology

Detection of Periodontal Bacteria in Atheromatous Plaque by Nested Polymerase Chain Reaction

Elena Figuero

Corresponding Author

Elena Figuero

Section of Graduate Periodontology, Faculty of Dentistry, Complutense University, Madrid, Spain.

Research Laboratory, Complutense University.

Correspondence: Dr. Elena Figuero, Research Laboratory, Complutense University, Madrid, Plaza Ramón y Cajal, SN, 28040, Madrid, Spain. Fax: 34-913941910; e-mail: [email protected].Search for more papers by this author
María Sánchez-Beltrán

María Sánchez-Beltrán

Research Laboratory, Complutense University.

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Susana Cuesta-Frechoso

Susana Cuesta-Frechoso

Faculty of Dentistry, University of Oviedo, Asturias, Spain.

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Jose María Tejerina

Jose María Tejerina

Faculty of Dentistry, University of Oviedo, Asturias, Spain.

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Jose Antonio del Castro

Jose Antonio del Castro

Department of Angiology and Vascular Surgery, University Central Hospital Asturias, Oviedo, Spain.

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Jose María Gutiérrez

Jose María Gutiérrez

Department of Angiology and Vascular Surgery, University Central Hospital Asturias, Oviedo, Spain.

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David Herrera

David Herrera

Section of Graduate Periodontology, Faculty of Dentistry, Complutense University, Madrid, Spain.

Etiology and Therapy of Periodontal Disease Research Group, Faculty of Dentistry, Complutense University.

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Mariano Sanz

Mariano Sanz

Section of Graduate Periodontology, Faculty of Dentistry, Complutense University, Madrid, Spain.

Etiology and Therapy of Periodontal Disease Research Group, Faculty of Dentistry, Complutense University.

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First published: 01 October 2011
Citations: 143

Abstract

Background: In recent years, increasing evidence regarding the potential association between periodontal diseases and cardiovascular diseases has been identified. The available evidence underlines the importance of detecting periodontal pathogens on atheromatous plaque as the first step in demonstrating the causal relationship between the two conditions. The main aim of this investigation is to detect periodontitis-associated bacteria from carotid artery atheromatous plaque from patients who received an endarterectomy using strict sample procurement and laboratory procedures.

Methods: Atheromatous plaque from endarterectomies from carotid arteries were scraped and homogenized, and bacterial DNA was extracted. To obtain a representative concentration of amplicons, two amplifications of the bacterial 16S ribosomal-RNA gene were carried out for each sample with universal eubacteria primers by a polymerase chain reaction (PCR). A nested PCR with specific primers for the target bacteria was performed next. Statistical tests included the χ2 test.

Results: Forty-two atheromatous plaque were analyzed. All of them were positive for ≥1 target bacterial species. The bacterial species most commonly found was Porphyromonas gingivalis (78.57%; 33 of 42), followed by Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans (previously Actinobacillus actinomycetemcomitans) (66.67%; 28 of 42), Tannerella forsythia (previously T. forsythensis) (61.90%; 26 of 42), Eikenella corrodens (54.76%; 23 of 42), Fusobacterium nucleatum (50.00%; 21 of 42), and Campylobacter rectus (9.52%; four of 42). The simultaneous presence of various bacterial species within the same specimen was a common observation.

Conclusion: Within the limitations of this study, the presence of DNA from periodontitis-associated bacteria in carotid artery atheromatous plaque retrieved by endarterectomy is confirmed.