Volume 85, Issue 3 p. 465-477
Translational Periodontology

Evaluation of the Host Response in Various Models of Induced Periodontal Disease in Mice

Rafael Scaf de Molon

Rafael Scaf de Molon

Department of Diagnosis and Surgery, School of Dentistry at Araraquara, Univ Estadual Paulista–UNESP, Araraquara, São Paulo, Brazil.

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Erica Dorigatti de Avila

Erica Dorigatti de Avila

Department of Dental Materials and Prosthodontics, School of Dentistry at Araraquara, Univ Estadual Paulista–UNESP.

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Andressa Vilas Boas Nogueira

Andressa Vilas Boas Nogueira

Department of Diagnosis and Surgery, School of Dentistry at Araraquara, Univ Estadual Paulista–UNESP, Araraquara, São Paulo, Brazil.

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Joao Antonio Chaves de Souza

Joao Antonio Chaves de Souza

Department of Diagnosis and Surgery, School of Dentistry at Araraquara, Univ Estadual Paulista–UNESP, Araraquara, São Paulo, Brazil.

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Mario Julio Avila-Campos

Mario Julio Avila-Campos

Anaerobe Laboratory, Department of Microbiology, Institute of Biomedical Science, University of São Paulo, São Paulo, São Paulo, Brazil.

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Cleverton Roberto de Andrade

Cleverton Roberto de Andrade

Department of Physiology and Pathology, School of Dentistry at Araraquara, Univ Estadual Paulista–UNESP.

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Joni Augusto Cirelli

Corresponding Author

Joni Augusto Cirelli

Department of Diagnosis and Surgery, School of Dentistry at Araraquara, Univ Estadual Paulista–UNESP, Araraquara, São Paulo, Brazil.

Correspondence: Dr. Joni Augusto Cirelli, Department of Diagnosis and Surgery, School of Dentistry at Araraquara, São Paulo State University, Rua Humaitá, 1680, 14801-903 Araraquara, São Paulo, Brazil. E-mail: [email protected].Search for more papers by this author
First published: 01 March 2014
Citations: 86

Abstract

Background: The aim of this study is to characterize and evaluate the host response caused by three different models of experimental periodontitis in mice.

Methods: C57BL/6 wild-type female mice were distributed into six experimental groups and sacrificed at 7, 15, and 30 days after the induction of periodontal disease: 1) group C: no treatment control group; 2) group L: periodontal disease induced by ligature; 3) group G-Pg: oral gavage with Porphyromonas gingivalis (Pg); 4) group G-PgFn: oral gavage with Fusobacterium nucleatum + Pg; 5) group I-Pg: heat-killed Pg injected into the palatal mucosa between the molars; and 6) group I-V: phosphate-buffered saline injected into the palatal mucosa. The samples were used to analyze the immune-inflammatory process in the gingival tissue via descriptive histologic and real-time polymerase chain reaction analyses. The alveolar bone loss was evaluated using microcomputed tomography. The data were analyzed using the Kruskal-Wallis test, followed by a post hoc Dunn test and analysis of variance, followed by a Tukey test using a 5% significance level.

Results: Only the ligature model displayed significant alveolar bone loss in the initial period (7 days), which was maintained with time. The group injected with heat-killed Pg displayed significant alveolar bone loss starting from day 15, which continued to progress with time (P <0.05). A significant increase (P <0.05) in the gene expression of proinflammatory cytokines (interleukin-6 and -1β) and proteins involved in osteoclastogenesis (receptor activator of nuclear factor-κB ligand and osteoprotegerin) was observed in the ligature group on day 7.

Conclusion: The ligature and injection of heat-killed Pg models were the most representative of periodontal disease in humans, whereas the oral gavage models were not effective at inducing the disease under the experimental conditions.